Some letters, like “c” and “q”, are totally missing from Gregg; there’s absolutely no sound for “c” besides those currently represented by “k” and “s”. Having said that, you will find typical phonemes in English—“sh”, “th”, “ch”—that need a mix of letters within the Roman alphabet, but could each be written by having a letter that is single Gregg. “Though,” which, in longhand, requires six symbols that are complex as well as seven quick ligatures, is rendered with two quick shots in Gregg: “th-o.” But Gregg goes even more, eliding unstressed vowels and unvoiced consonants to make the journey to the phonetic nugget for the word: “bed” is created as “b-d”; “act” as “a-k”; “done” as “d-n”. This economy of spelling saves another 10 % for the note-taker’s time.
However the biggest effect from Gregg shorthand originates from its systematic way of abbreviation. For example, nearly every page in Gregg, authored by it self, represents a typical term. Most are utilized for a few words that are different with respect to the context. Our Gregg friend “b” can suggest “be”, “by”, or “but”. The Gregg letter “r” can suggest “are”, “our”, or “hour.” The Gregg letter “t” can indicate “it“at or”.” In this manner, almost 100 of the very most typical terms in English may be rendered in a stroke that is single. Likewise, most frequent English terms have actually a spelling that is abbreviated of or two shots. The Gregg version that is elegant of,” for example, is quick for “bring” and it is printed in an instantaneous. right Here it really is once again:
And, since 60 % of spoken English is composed of about 600 of the typical terms, brief forms play a role that is huge quickening Gregg. “Brief type” is really a term that is technical Gregg. Anybody can discover the Gregg alphabet in a day and most likely increase their composing speed; but to be undoubtedly fast—like the rest of the a small number of Gregg-powered court reporters when you look at the federal courts whom remove testimony at a lot more than 200 words per minute—you need certainly to memorize dozens or a huge selection of typical abbreviations.
That sounds difficult until such time you keep in mind that the head is chock-a-block with common English abbreviations, almost all of that you simply discovered naturally while you needed them. Gregg is not any different. Therefore the Gregg variations are in minimum more systematic, so that they accrue quickly.
However the form that is brief significantly more than a straightforward abbreviation, it is the distillation for the fundamental premise of shorthand: never ever compose a lot more than is important to comprehend it later on. Applying this concept, a huge number of long, Latinate words are shortened to 3 or four letters in Gregg: “a-b-a-nd” for “abandon,” “h-u-nd” for hundred, “n-a-sh” for “nation.” Brief types had been specially crucial into the polysyllabic lexicons of medicine and law—fields that, not coincidentally, had been additionally epicenters of shorthand in Gregg’s heyday.
One approach that is especially fertile abbreviation in Gregg could be the usage of solitary letters as stand-ins for typical prefixes or suffixes, according to whether they’re written before or following the terms they modify. As prefixes, these letters may be either attached with or detached through the word. As an example, a detached “g,” written right before and above a word represents “grand,” as in “grandmother,” but additionally as with “grandiloquent,” if not “granular” (that can be written “g” above “l-r.”)
On the other hand, an attached “k” at the start of a term could possibly be the prefixes “con,” “com,” or “count;” therefore “k-g” is pronounced “cong,” and it is the short kind for Congress. But a“k that is detached written above a term could be the prefix “counter” or “contra”; therefore “k” written over a “b”, for instance, is read “contrib” and it is the brief kind for “contribute” or “contribution.”
It’s much the exact same with suffixes. A“g that is detached at the termination of a term is short for “gram,” as psychology research paper example in “program.” A“k that is detached represents “ical,” as with “medical.” And a detached “o” takes the spot of “ology,” as in “biology.”
These types may also be added together to produce longer terms.
“Biological” is created “b-i” accompanied by a detached “o-k.” This way, very long, complex terms are paid down to 2 or 3 fast flicks of this pen, yet stay completely legible to anybody who understands the Gregg system. Combined, the forms that are brief the abbreviation concept take into account about 50 % of Gregg’s benefit over longhand. Not just would be the letters simple and simply joined, you can find less of those to publish.
The element that is final makes Gregg therefore blazingly fast is a technique called “phrasing.” That way, numerous expressions that are common be dashed down in several shots without ever raising the pen through the web web page. As an example, the expression “it will be” consists of three common terms, every one of which may be written separately with just one letter: “i,” written with a quick, straight, upward swing that slopes to your right, represents “it;” “l,” a lengthy, horizontal, upward-facing curve, represents “will;” and, as we’ve seen, “b,” the long, downward curving swing, represents “be.” Phrasing enables you to join all three of those letters in a single elegant, continuous form—“i-l-b”—that takes significantly less than a quarter-second to publish.
Listed here is “it will soon be” in the very first line, with “We have been” below it:
And you can find literally 1000s of these expressions in Gregg shorthand. Above all, unlike brief types, they don’t need much memorization; they’re the merchandise of the few easy guidelines.
By the time he passed away, in 1949, Gregg presided over an empire that reached from their head office on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan into virtually every college, company and courthouse in the nation. As he had been fundamentally a publishing magnate—Gregg Publishing put away hundreds of textbooks, dictionaries, research guides, mags, and shorthand variations of traditional literature—John Robert Gregg additionally oversaw a commercial infrastructure of certification agencies, company schools, and testing facilities that endorsed the relevant skills of all of the professional shorthand article writers. You needed a certificate from Gregg saying you qualified at 150 words per minute if you wanted to be an executive secretary. You had to demonstrate you could write an astonishing 225 words per minute with better than 98 percent accuracy if you wanted to be a court reporter. Entirely, huge numbers of people passed away through Gregg training while the Gregg official official certification system.
For almost a century, Gregg ended up being a important section of us culture. Since recently as the 1970s, virtually every senior high school in the nation taught Gregg. Truly, every company school & most universities offered shorthand that is gregg-certified. But Gregg’s decline started whenever McGraw-Hill purchased Gregg Publishing, right after John Robert Gregg’s death. The rise of stenography devices into the 1940s and 1950s steadily drove shorthand through the courtroom (though you can still find a number of “pen authors” into the federal court system). The Dictaphone along with other recording devices made note that is verbatim less and less essential in work. Plus some social individuals state improvements in women’s rights additionally played a task into the decrease of Gregg. The smartest, most talented women often ended up as secretaries or executive assistants and became gifted shorthand practitioners in a time when they were denied careers in fields like the law or medicine. Those left behind never became quite as fast or skilled at the complexities of Gregg in the 1960s and 1970s, as these women began to move on to better opportunities.
The death that is real for Gregg, though, ended up being the arrival for the laptop or computer within the 1980s. Also executives that are high-level much much longer dictated letters with their secretaries; they had written them by themselves to their desktop computers. Organizations which used to possess ratings of skilled shorthand authors eliminated their steno swimming pools totally. Today, i am perhaps maybe maybe not conscious of any school that is high teaches Gregg. It is extremely difficult to get it taught in colleges—with two exceptions in Kingsborough and Queensborough community universities in new york, where Gregg article writers are nevertheless prized by some white glove legislation businesses. The book that is only posted because of the Gregg Division of McGraw-Hill may be the Gregg handbook, an workplace reference which contains no reference to shorthand.
But, as a technology for composing fast with pen and paper—still a skill that is fundamental reporters like me—Gregg shorthand has not been surpassed. Nowadays, you may need to purchase a vintage Gregg manual on e-Bay and show your self, but even though you simply discover the rules, Gregg will likely increase your note taking rate. With repetition and day-to-day usage, it is quite normal to attain rates of 100 terms one minute or higher. And, paradoxically, shorthand is the perfect complement to the twenty-first Century technology associated with smartpen.
In the end, shorthand—at minimum my shorthand—isn’t foolproof. Despite the fact that, for brief stretches, i will compose 120 terms each and every minute, the normal United states now talks at significantly more than 150 terms a moment, therefore something is inevitably lost when you look at the interpretation. With my trusty Sky smartpen, though, we don’t need to worry. More often than not, once I circumvent to writing the storyline, i will depend on my handwritten records for quick quotes and back ground information. However when we need a lengthier, verbatim estimate, I’m able to make use of my records as some sort of index to obtain the right area of the meeting, and touch there with my pen to listen to the playback. You can forget for the dance that is forward/reverse a electronic recorder when it is time for you to transcribe. It is an almost perfect system.